Strand 2: Application to specific scenarios

2.1 Business and employment

Topic Examples
Traditional businesses Banks, including ATM (automatic teller machines), EFT (electronic funds transfer), hotels, supermarkets, travel agencies.
Online businesses
Working practices such as teleworking and home working.
Transportation Airline reservation systems, navigation, package tracking, traffic control systems, IT systems in cars.

The coverage of business and employment should address the IT systems that exist as well as the ethical issues and social impacts that arise from the increased use of information technologies for both employers and employees. Students should be aware of the range of different business environments, ranging from a traditional (offline) business to businesses that are exclusively online.

2.2Education and training



Distance learning over large areas

Hospitals, prisons, retirement homes, schools.

Use of IT in teaching and learning

Educational software, online research and forums, virtual learning environments (VLE), e-books, Web 2.0 educational networks, use of mobile devices, game-based learning, fully immersive environments, filtering and monitoring of students’ internet use, 1-to-1, m-learning.

Hardware and network technologies in the classroom

Laptop computers, handheld devices, interactive whiteboards.

Provision for special needs

Inclusive software, Braille keyboards, accessibility.

School administration

Record-keeping of staff and finances, libraries, student records, EDI (electronic data interchange).

The development of new IT systems is revolutionizing the delivery of education and training. Technological advances have led to an increase in the dependency of students, staff and administrators on the supporting IT systems.




Modelling and simulations

Climate change, forecasting natural events or demographic changes.

Data logging

Sensors, probes, real-time data collection.

Satellite communication

Remote sensing devices, satellite imagery, tagging.

Mapping, virtual globes

Geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), cell/mobile phone tracking, online journey planning, online maps.


Development, disposal and recycling of IT equipment, monitoring organizations such as the Basel Action Network.

Resource depletion

Use of non-renewable resources for manufacturing components, electrical consumption of IT systems.

The environmental theme covers a wide range of topics. The increasing processing capability of mobile devices has enabled almost universal access to information, but the increased number of devices has impacted on health and the environment.




Diagnostic and therapeutic tools

Surgery, prosthetic devices, diagnostic technology, rehabilitation, patient monitoring, individualized IT solutions for disabled people, accessibility.

Medical information, administration, marketing and sales

Medical advice, e-prescriptions, telemedicine, electronic health records, international health cards.

Medical research

Global collaboration, database for the Human Genome Project, improving patient rehabilitation.

Psychological and physical considerations

Internet addiction, repetitive strain injury (RSI), ergonomics.

IT has revolutionized medicine. With the increasing size of the world’s population, the effective management of health care using IT systems will become even more important.

2.5Home and leisure



Homes and home networks

IT management of home systems: for example, lighting, security, entertainment centres.

Digital entertainment

Films, photographs, music, arts, online and digital games, gambling, virtual worlds.

Social networking

Chat rooms, messaging, blogging, file sharing, wikis.

Published and broadcast information

Books, newspapers, digital radio and TV, e-books, podcasts.

Digital policing

Monitoring organizations such as the Recording Industry Association of America (RIAA) and the Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA).

Hardware, software and networks

Portable digital devices and their ability to remotely control other devices, IT-enabled appliances.

The growth of the internet and the ability to transfer information globally in real time has revolutionized the way in which increasing numbers of people live. The global online society, the development of English as the dominant online language, and the constant availability of information may lead to a homogenization of peoples, with some cultures being subsumed into others or lost.

2.6Politics and government



Political processes

Online campaigning, voting, lobbying, fund-raising and advertising.

Government information sites

For example, travel warnings, tourist information, environmental information and warnings, government policies, city government websites.

Access to, and updating of, personal information held on government databases

Collection, storage and updating of personal data: for example, driving licence, TV licence, tax returns, passport applications and renewals, medical records, military service records, social security information, online police records.

Government control and use of information

Censorship, data matching across agencies, archiving, biometric data, national identity cards.

Law and order

Police surveillance, terrorist monitoring, DNA data.


Cyberwarfare, smart weapons, espionage, battlefield technology.

The importance of IT is becoming increasingly evident in political campaigns. With increased amounts of information available to governments, ethical issues relating to its possible misuse are becoming more and more important.